History of Boxing - Origin and Evolution
is a well-defined combat sport in which
two people under the supervision of a referee throw punches one at
during a predetermined set of time while wearing protective gloves and
moving inside a boxing ring. They are
only permitted to use their hands and hit opponents above the waistline.
Today, boxing is an international sport that is practiced
by Amateurs, professionals in World Championships, as well as athletes in
Olympic and Commonwealth Games. Winner of a boxing match is decided when
referee determines that one participant is disqualified, resigns from the
fight, incapable of continuing, or when side-judges elect a winner via
scorecards at the end of a full match. In professional boxing, a draw is
possible if both fighters receive the same number of points at the end of a
match. In Olympic bouts, referees have to elect a clear winner.
The history of this sport went through many changes, especially after it
started gaining popularity in ancient Greece, over 2700 years ago.
Boxing in Ancient Times
Boxing with a limited set of rules between two or more individuals
undoubtedly was born in prehistoric times, but the organized fights were
immediately depicted with the dawn of first civilizations who could write.
is the home of the first ever recorded mention of boxing. Originally
recorded in 3rd millennia BC Iraq, many more reliefs that depicted boxing
were found from 2nd millennia civilizations of Babylonia, Assyria, Hittite.
Three and a half thousand years ago, the first picture of a boxing bout was found on Minoan Crete.
Ancient Greek Boxing
The civilization of
ancient Greece was the first who developed boxing into the popular
that was enjoyed for centuries and eventually popularized even beyond their
They maintained rules, had official bouts, and introduce it into 23rd Olympiad competition in 688 BC. The fights were
usually fought for glory, but there are records that winners of big
competitions have won gold, livestock and other rewards.
The boxing matches at that time did not have rounds, no weight limits, and the matches
ended when one of the competitors was either unable to continue fighting or
has admitted defeat.
In addition to boxing, Olympiad games also featured combat sport under the
name of Pankration. It mixed boxing and wrestling techniques, with
permissible moves such as kicking, holds, chokes and locks on the ground.
Ancient Roman Boxing
Roman Empire promoted combat sports, but with the popularity of gladiator
bouts fought by slaves, they were
less focused on sporting events that ended with someone not dying
. During this time, boxing fighters started wearing leather thongs around
their fists, which eventually evolved into more armored fist weapons (with
metal spikes) that were used by gladiators. Another invention of Ancient
Roman boxing was the boxing ring, which at that time was circle-shaped.
After the abolishment of combat sports in AD 393,
fistfighting as a sport returned to Italy between 12th and 17th
Kulachniy Boy - Russian Boxing
Between the disappearance of combat sports after the fall of Roman Empire
and the rise of prizefighting in London,
Russians managed to popularize a specific style of traditional
This sporting discipline had many rules, which eventually formed three
basic types of Russian fist fighting - several variations of the one-on-one fight, team fight (ranging
between few to hundreds of participants), and rarely practiced "catch drop” type.
Traditional Russian fistfights became part of their folklore, with famous
bouts and fighters becoming immortalized in poems, literature, art, and
Prizefighting in London
The first resurgence of modern organized fist fighting and boxing sports
events can be traced to England, where the disappearance of swords brought
the increase in “fencing with fists”. The
earliest record of the English “knuckle boxing”
or “prizefighting” can be traced to 1681, and the sport gained wide popularity during the
reign of the first English bare-knuckle champion James Figg between 1719 and 1730. The boxing matches of
that time included not only fistfights but also cudgeling and fencing.
Early English boxing had no rules, round limits, weight divisions or
The spectators and fighters, therefore, enjoyed the chaotic environment
in which fights were viewed as being “pure”. Extreme moves
like headbutting, chokes, hard throws, and eye-gouging were permissible.
Fighters did not use any protection on their fists, which led to the
adoption of several fighting styles in which fighters tied to protect their
hands from injuries.
were introduced by champion Jack Broughton in 1743 after a series of in-ring deaths. The (initially rarely
enforced) rule depicted an end of the match condition if an opponent
dropped to the ground and could not get up after the 30-second count.
Regulations devised by Jack Broughton in 1743 that banned various extreme
moves were eventually ratified as London Prize Ring Rules in 1838 and 1853.
Marquess of Queensberry rules (1867)
1867 saw the release of the first officially sanctioned rules devised by
John Chambers, published by Marquess of Queensberry, and
devised for the amateur championships held at Lillie Bridge in London that
gather Lightweights, Middleweights, and Heavyweights.
All in all 12 rules were introduced:
Specifications for 24-foot-square or similar-sized ring.
with one minute of rest between them.
Wrestling and hugging were banned.
for the fighter who was knocked down.
- Fighter caught by the ropes with his feet not touching the ground was
Only two fighters and a referee were allowed to be in a ring.
Fighters had to use “fair-sized” gloves.
The referee had to ensure usage of proper gloves.
Dropping to a knee counted as being down.
Springs in boots or shoes were not allowed.
Referees have to reschedule the fight if the active bout cannot be
continued for any reason.
The rest of regulation has to be taken from Revised Rules of the London
The use of padded gloves and f Queensberry rules was greatly popularized by
the famous English heavyweight boxer James “Jem” Mace starting in 1861.
John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry
John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry,
was a wealthy Scottish nobleman that is remembered today
for his uncommon brutish manner, outspoken views, famous dispute with Oscar
Wilde, and his involvement in the creation of the “ Queensberry rules” that formed the foundation of
the modern boxing rules.
Being a keen enthusiast of fox hunting, horse racing, boxing and a patron
of sports practices by both nobility and common people, John Douglas became
directly involved in the creation of several sporting clubs. His most
enduring legacies are Amateur Athletic Club that is today known under a
name Amateur Athletic Association of England, and of course patronage of
John Graham Chambers boxing rules which were named "Queensberry Rules".
After several decades of promotion, these rules eventually become the basis
upon which modern boxing sports would be governed.
Late 19th and early 20th centuries
The popularization of the Queensberry Rules brought the end of the bare-knuckle chapter of the boxing history.
The age of glove-less fighting ended during the years when famous American
boxer John L. Sullivan. He vigorously lobbied against gloves, and
eventually in 1889 got stripped of his title after he defeated English
fighter Jake Karline. After several legal battles, he conceded to use
padded gloves and follow Queensberry rules when he defended his Champion’s
belt in a fight against James J. Corbet.
Boxing in the USA
However, by the end of 19th and start of 20th century, the sport of boxing
became marginalized and outright outlawed in several countries. Competitions and
prizefights (often without rules) often started being held in hidden
gambling venues. Official fights with strict rules continued at some
territories, leading to the arrival of " Gentleman Jim" Corbett, the first heavyweight
champion who followed Queensberry Rules, He defeated John L. Sullivan in
1892, New Orleans.
As the popularity of box started to grow in the United States, many young
fighters (who were at that time mostly immigrants or poor) saw boxing as
one of the easiest ways to achieve wealth and glory. By 1915, Irish
immigrants in the United States become a dominating group of the US boxing
scene, with leading names being Terry McGovern, “Philadelphia” Jack O’Brien, Mike “ Twin” Sullivan and many others. During that time,
fighters of many other nationalities rose to fame, including first
appearances of talented black American fighters who became fully integrated
into sport only after the Great Depression of 1929. Joe Louis became the
first black heavyweight World Champion boxer in 1937.
After the third quarter of 20th century, USA boxing scene became dominated
by the black boxers, such as “Sugar” Ray Leonard,
“Marvelous” Marvin Hagler, Mike Tyson and others.
History of Amateur Boxing
Amateur Boxing was initially born as the reaction of the upper and
middle-class gentlemen to the rising popularity of knuckle boxing and
prizefighting. Thus, in the mid-19th century, a new set of rules was formed
to enable the creation of a more safe and “scientific”
style of fighting that could be taught in schools, universities and armed forces.
However, the majority of champions in this type of sport still came from
The arrival of Queensberry Rules promoted amateur boxing tremendously,
leading to the establishment of Amateur Boxing Association in 1880. Just a
few decades later, boxing arrived at Olympic Games. The
currently ruling boxing governing body International Amateur Boxing
Association (A.I.B.A.) was formed in 1946 in London, with 24 nations being
initially part of it.
The first World Amateur Boxing Championships were held in 1974 in Havana,
Cuba. Winners in 11 boxing categories came from Cuba, Soviet Union, United
States, Uganda, Puerto Rico and Yugoslavia.
History of Professional Boxing
began in 1981 when a private club National Sporting Club in London started
promoting professional glove fights that followed enhanced Queensberry
Rules. As professional bouts continued throughout the years, NSC oversaw
the boxing scene and created title fights that were popularized and signed
into reality by managers and promoters.
The golden age of professional boxing sport
arrived between 1920 and 1930s with the three-man team of
boxer Jack Dempsey, his manager Jack Kearns, and the promoter Tex Rickard.
Their efforts attracted the then unseen amount of funding into boxing, with
their matches being broadcasted live via radio, and ensured that boxing as
a professional sport would survive after the pause that was caused by the
Second World War.
After an early 20th century, the center of the professional boxing word
moved slowly but surely to the United States. There, National Boxing
Association (which later dissolved) started organizing title fights after
In 1998, the first professional woman boxing match happened in London.