Boxing is a well-defined combat sport in which two people under the supervision of a referee throw punches one at another during a predetermined set of time while wearing protective gloves and moving inside a boxing ring. They are only permitted to use their hands and hit opponents above the waistline.
Today, boxing is an international sport that is practiced by Amateurs, professionals in World Championships, as well as athletes in Olympic and Commonwealth Games. Winner of a boxing match is decided when referee determines that one participant is disqualified, resigns from the fight, incapable of continuing, or when side-judges elect a winner via scorecards at the end of a full match. In professional boxing, a draw is possible if both fighters receive the same number of points at the end of a match. In Olympic bouts, referees have to elect a clear winner.
The history of this sport went through many changes, especially after it started gaining popularity in ancient Greece, over 2700 years ago.
Boxing with a limited set of rules between two or more individuals undoubtedly was born in prehistoric times, but the organized fights were immediately depicted with the dawn of first civilizations who could write.
Ancient Sumeria is the home of the first ever recorded mention of boxing. Originally recorded in 3rd millennia BC Iraq, many more reliefs that depicted boxing were found from 2nd millennia civilizations of Babylonia, Assyria, Hittite. Three and a half thousand years ago, the first picture of a boxing bout was found on Minoan Crete.
The civilization of ancient Greece was the first who developed boxing into the popular sport that was enjoyed for centuries and eventually popularized even beyond their borders.
They maintained rules, had official bouts, and introduce it into 23rd Olympiad competition in 688 BC. The fights were usually fought for glory, but there are records that winners of big competitions have won gold, livestock and other rewards.
The boxing matches at that time did not have rounds, no weight limits, and the matches ended when one of the competitors was either unable to continue fighting or has admitted defeat.
In addition to boxing, Olympiad games also featured combat sport under the name of Pankration. It mixed boxing and wrestling techniques, with permissible moves such as kicking, holds, chokes and locks on the ground.
Roman Empire promoted combat sports, but with the popularity of gladiator bouts fought by slaves, they were less focused on sporting events that ended with someone not dying . During this time, boxing fighters started wearing leather thongs around their fists, which eventually evolved into more armored fist weapons (with metal spikes) that were used by gladiators. Another invention of Ancient Roman boxing was the boxing ring, which at that time was circle-shaped.
After the abolishment of combat sports in AD 393, fistfighting as a sport returned to Italy between 12th and 17th centuries .
Between the disappearance of combat sports after the fall of Roman Empire and the rise of prizefighting in London, Russians managed to popularize a specific style of traditional bare-knuckle boxing .
This sporting discipline had many rules, which eventually formed three basic types of Russian fist fighting - several variations of the one-on-one fight, team fight (ranging between few to hundreds of participants), and rarely practiced "catch drop” type.
Traditional Russian fistfights became part of their folklore, with famous bouts and fighters becoming immortalized in poems, literature, art, and folktales.
The first resurgence of modern organized fist fighting and boxing sports events can be traced to England, where the disappearance of swords brought the increase in “fencing with fists”. The earliest record of the English “knuckle boxing” or “prizefighting” can be traced to 1681, and the sport gained wide popularity during the reign of the first English bare-knuckle champion James Figg between 1719 and 1730. The boxing matches of that time included not only fistfights but also cudgeling and fencing.
Early English boxing had no rules, round limits, weight divisions or referees . The spectators and fighters, therefore, enjoyed the chaotic environment in which fights were viewed as being “pure”. Extreme moves like headbutting, chokes, hard throws, and eye-gouging were permissible. Fighters did not use any protection on their fists, which led to the adoption of several fighting styles in which fighters tied to protect their hands from injuries.
First rules were introduced by champion Jack Broughton in 1743 after a series of in-ring deaths. The (initially rarely enforced) rule depicted an end of the match condition if an opponent dropped to the ground and could not get up after the 30-second count. Regulations devised by Jack Broughton in 1743 that banned various extreme moves were eventually ratified as London Prize Ring Rules in 1838 and 1853.
1867 saw the release of the first officially sanctioned rules devised by John Chambers, published by Marquess of Queensberry, and devised for the amateur championships held at Lillie Bridge in London that gather Lightweights, Middleweights, and Heavyweights.
All in all 12 rules were introduced:
The use of padded gloves and f Queensberry rules was greatly popularized by the famous English heavyweight boxer James “Jem” Mace starting in 1861.
John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, was a wealthy Scottish nobleman that is remembered today for his uncommon brutish manner, outspoken views, famous dispute with Oscar Wilde, and his involvement in the creation of the “ Queensberry rules” that formed the foundation of the modern boxing rules.
Being a keen enthusiast of fox hunting, horse racing, boxing and a patron of sports practices by both nobility and common people, John Douglas became directly involved in the creation of several sporting clubs. His most enduring legacies are Amateur Athletic Club that is today known under a name Amateur Athletic Association of England, and of course patronage of John Graham Chambers boxing rules which were named "Queensberry Rules". After several decades of promotion, these rules eventually become the basis upon which modern boxing sports would be governed.
The popularization of the Queensberry Rules brought the end of the bare-knuckle chapter of the boxing history.
The age of glove-less fighting ended during the years when famous American boxer John L. Sullivan. He vigorously lobbied against gloves, and eventually in 1889 got stripped of his title after he defeated English fighter Jake Karline. After several legal battles, he conceded to use padded gloves and follow Queensberry rules when he defended his Champion’s belt in a fight against James J. Corbet.
However, by the end of 19th and start of 20th century, the sport of boxing became marginalized and outright outlawed in several countries. Competitions and prizefights (often without rules) often started being held in hidden gambling venues. Official fights with strict rules continued at some territories, leading to the arrival of " Gentleman Jim" Corbett, the first heavyweight champion who followed Queensberry Rules, He defeated John L. Sullivan in 1892, New Orleans.
As the popularity of box started to grow in the United States, many young fighters (who were at that time mostly immigrants or poor) saw boxing as one of the easiest ways to achieve wealth and glory. By 1915, Irish immigrants in the United States become a dominating group of the US boxing scene, with leading names being Terry McGovern, “Philadelphia” Jack O’Brien, Mike “ Twin” Sullivan and many others. During that time, fighters of many other nationalities rose to fame, including first appearances of talented black American fighters who became fully integrated into sport only after the Great Depression of 1929. Joe Louis became the first black heavyweight World Champion boxer in 1937.
After the third quarter of 20th century, USA boxing scene became dominated by the black boxers, such as “Sugar” Ray Leonard, “Marvelous” Marvin Hagler, Mike Tyson and others.
Amateur Boxing was initially born as the reaction of the upper and middle-class gentlemen to the rising popularity of knuckle boxing and prizefighting. Thus, in the mid-19th century, a new set of rules was formed to enable the creation of a more safe and “scientific” style of fighting that could be taught in schools, universities and armed forces. However, the majority of champions in this type of sport still came from poorer backgrounds.
The arrival of Queensberry Rules promoted amateur boxing tremendously, leading to the establishment of Amateur Boxing Association in 1880. Just a few decades later, boxing arrived at Olympic Games. The currently ruling boxing governing body International Amateur Boxing Association (A.I.B.A.) was formed in 1946 in London, with 24 nations being initially part of it.
The first World Amateur Boxing Championships were held in 1974 in Havana, Cuba. Winners in 11 boxing categories came from Cuba, Soviet Union, United States, Uganda, Puerto Rico and Yugoslavia.
Professional boxing began in 1981 when a private club National Sporting Club in London started promoting professional glove fights that followed enhanced Queensberry Rules. As professional bouts continued throughout the years, NSC oversaw the boxing scene and created title fights that were popularized and signed into reality by managers and promoters.
The golden age of professional boxing sport arrived between 1920 and 1930s with the three-man team of boxer Jack Dempsey, his manager Jack Kearns, and the promoter Tex Rickard. Their efforts attracted the then unseen amount of funding into boxing, with their matches being broadcasted live via radio, and ensured that boxing as a professional sport would survive after the pause that was caused by the Second World War.
After an early 20th century, the center of the professional boxing word moved slowly but surely to the United States. There, National Boxing Association (which later dissolved) started organizing title fights after 1920.
In 1998, the first professional woman boxing match happened in London.